Offline Password Cracking is an attempt to recover one or more passwords from a password storage file that has been recovered from a target system. Typically, this would be the Security Account Manager (SAM) file on Windows, or the /etc/shadow file on Linux. In most cases, Offline Password Cracking will require that an attacker has already attained administrator / root level privileges on the system to get to the storage mechanism.
Online password cracking has advantages and disadvantages. It is effective if executed properly. There are numerous defenses to prevent attackers from cracking your passwords.
ECSA Certification review by Daniel Sewell, Sr. Penetration Tester for Alpine Security. The EC-Council Certified Security Analyst (ECSA) certification consists of both a hands-on practical penetration test and a multiple choice exam.